BMJ: 在外吃饭,一不留神热量就超标

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BMJ:在外吃饭,一不留神就热量超标

British Medical Journal[IF:23.259]

原标题:测量经常购买的餐馆饭菜的能量含量:多国横断面研究

① 随机选择巴西、中国、芬兰、加纳和印度的116家传统餐馆、快餐店和食堂,分析233个常点饭菜的热量含量,并与美国对比;

② 餐馆饭菜的平均热量含量,仅中国(719kcal)显著低于美国(1088kcal);

③ 快餐店比传统餐馆的饭菜平均热量少33%,芬兰的工作食堂饭菜热量比传统餐馆和快餐店少25%;

④ 94%的传统餐馆饭菜和72%的快餐饭菜热量≥600kcal(英国公共卫生部推荐的午餐/晚餐热量);

⑤ 餐馆饭菜的高热量或是全球肥胖的重要原因和干预靶点。


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British Medical Journal[IF:23.259]

Measured energy content of frequently purchased restaurant meals: multicountry cross sectional study

测量经常购买的餐馆饭菜的能量含量:多国横断面研究

12-12, Article, 10.1136/bmj.k4864

Abstract:
Objective: To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals from full service and fast food restaurants in five countries and compare values with US data.
Design: Cross sectional survey.
Setting : 223 meals from 111 randomly selected full service and fast food restaurants serving popular cuisines in Brazil, China, Finland, Ghana, and India were the primary sampling unit; 10 meals from five worksite canteens were also studied in Finland. The observational unit was frequently ordered meals in selected restaurants.
Main outcome measure: Meal energy content, measured by bomb calorimetry.
Results : Compared with the US, weighted mean energy of restaurant meals was lower only in China (719 (95% confidence interval 646 to 799) kcal versus 1088 (1002 to 1181) kcal; P<0.001). In analysis of variance models, fast food contained 33% less energy than full service meals (P<0.001). In Finland, worksite canteens provided 25% less energy than full service and fast food restaurants (mean 880 (SD 156) versus 1166 (298); P=0.009). Country, restaurant type, number of meal components, and meal weight predicted meal energy in a factorial analysis of variance (R2=0.62, P<0.001). Ninety four per cent of full service meals and 72% of fast food meals contained at least 600 kcal. Modeling indicated that, except in China, consuming current servings of a full service and a fast food meal daily would supply between 70% and 120% of the daily energy requirements for a sedentary woman, without additional meals, drinks, snacks, appetizers, or desserts.
Conclusion: Very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast food restaurant meals is a widespread phenomenon that is probably supporting global obesity and provides a valid intervention target.

First Authors:
Susan B Roberts

Correspondence Authors:
Susan B Roberts,John R Speakman

All Authors:
Susan B Roberts,Sai Krupa Das,Vivian Marques Miguel Suen,Jussi Pihlajam?ki,Rebecca Kuriyan,Matilda Steiner-Asiedu,Amy Taetzsch,Alex K Anderson,Rachel E Silver,Kathryn Barger,Amy Krauss,Leila Karhunen,Xueying Zhang,Catherine Hambly,Ursula Schwab,Andresa de Toledo Triffoni-Melo,Salima F Taylor,Christina Economos,Anura V Kurpad,John R Speakman

【主编评语】外出就餐和吃外卖已成为城市人的生活常态,BMJ发表的一项研究,分析对比了6个国家(巴西、加纳、芬兰、美国、中国和印度)的餐馆、快餐店和食堂中受欢迎的饭菜所含的热量,发现除了中国,其他5国的餐馆饭菜热量普遍不低(平均1份约1000千卡,约为普通成年人每天所需热量的一半),而且与普遍观念相反,快餐的饭菜平均热量竟比传统餐馆少1/3。这些数据提示,经常外出就餐恐怕是让人长胖的一个原因,餐馆或许应从饭菜的成分和分量入手,降低食物热量。(@mildbreeze)

BMJ:在英国下馆子,主餐热量有多少?

British Medical Journal[IF:23.259]

原标题:在英国主要餐饮连锁店(过度)下馆子:主餐能量含量的观察性研究

① 分析英国27家餐饮连锁店(21家为传统餐馆,6家为快餐)的1.3万份主餐的热量,平均的主餐热量为977千卡;

② 仅9%的主餐达到了公共健康的建议的≤600千卡,47%的主餐超过了1000千卡(热量过高);

③ 与快餐店相比,传统餐馆的主餐热量更高(平均高268千卡)、达到公共健康建议标准的比例更低;

④ 尽管快餐的营养质量常被诟病,英国传统餐馆的主餐热量较高,引人担忧。


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British Medical Journal[IF:23.259]

(Over)eating out at major UK restaurant chains: observational study of energy content of main meals

在英国主要餐饮连锁店(过度)下馆子:主餐能量含量的观察性研究

12-12, Article, 10.1136/bmj.k4982

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES: To examine the energy content of main meals served in major UK restaurant chains and compare the energy content of meals in fast food and “full service” restaurant chains.
DESIGN: Observational study
SETTING: Menu and nutritional information provided by major UK restaurant chains.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean energy content of meals, proportion of meals meeting public health recommendations for energy consumption (≤600 kcal), and proportion of meals with excessive energy content (≥1000 kcal).
RESULTS: Main meals from 27 restaurant chains (21 full service; 6 fast food) were sampled. The mean energy content of all eligible restaurant meals (13?396 in total) was 977 (95% confidence interval 973 to 983) kcal. The percentage of all meals that met public health recommendations for energy content was low (9%; n=1226) and smaller than the percentage of meals with an excessive energy content (47%; 6251). Compared with fast food restaurants, full service restaurants offered significantly more excessively calorific main meals, fewer main meals meeting public health recommendations, and on average 268 (103 to 433) kcal more in main meals.
CONCLUSIONS: The energy content of a large number of main meals in major UK restaurant chains is excessive, and only a minority meet public health recommendations. Although the poor nutritional quality of fast food meals has been well documented, the energy content of full service restaurant meals in the UK tends to be higher and is a cause for concern.

First Authors:
Eric Robinson

Correspondence Authors:
Eric Robinson

All Authors:
Eric Robinson,Andrew Jones,Victoria Whitelock,Bethan R Mead,Ashleigh Haynes

【主编评语】BMJ上周发表的另一篇关于在外吃饭的膳食热量的研究,分析了英国的传统餐馆和快餐店的1.3万份主餐的热量,表明虽然快餐的营养质量常被诟病,传统餐馆的高热量问题更加明显。(@mildbreeze)




文章来源:BMJ(英国医学期刊)、热心肠研究院


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